Short-term bone loss in HIV-infected premenopausal women
Low bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported in HIV+ women, but less is known about the longitudinal evolution of BMD and fracture incidence.
In 100 HIV+ and 68 HIV- premenopausal women in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study, BMD was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) at index visit and after a median of 2.5 years.
In HIV+ women, BMD at index visit was normal but 5% lower at the LS and FN than in HIV- women. Annual percent decrease in BMD did not differ between HIV+ and HIV- women at the LS (-0.8% +/- 0.2% vs -0.4% +/- 0.2%, P = 0.20) or FN (-0.8% +/- 0.3% vs -0.6% +/- 0.3%, P = 0.56) and remained similar after adjustment for age, weight, and BMD at index visit. Among HIV+ women, bone loss was associated with vitamin D deficiency and opiate use but not with use or class of antiretrovirals. Incidence of self-reported fracture was 0.74 per 100 person-years in HIV+ women and similar in HIV- women.
In premenopausal HIV+ women, index BMD was lower than comparable HIV- women; however, rates of bone loss at the LS and FN were similar over 2.5 years of observation, irrespective of antiretroviral therapy.